We know the woman is faithful Israel. How? She is described with sun, moon, and 12 stars. Remember Joseph’s dream in Genesis 37:9 where h is father was the sun and mother the moon and the 11 stars that bowed down to him were his brothers? The 12 sons form the headship of the 12 tribes of Israel. This woman is the nation of descendants promised to Abraham to produce his Seed through Isaac, Abraham’s promised miracle son, who would lead to the Messiah Seed to save Israel and all nations.
We read in verse 5 that the Child she bears will rule all nations with a rod of iron, and is caught up to God and His throne. That confirms her Child is Yeshua Jesus who is destined to be King of Kings and Lord of lords. Yeshua Jesus is the One who ascended into heaven and was seated at the right hand of God the Father. Psalm 2:9 prophesies that the Messiah will rule with a rod of iron, and in Revelation 19:15 we read that the Messiah Yeshua Jesus fulfills this prophecy. He is the Son of God and the Son of Man born the Seed of faithful Israel.
It is also interesting that the 12 constellations in the heavens begin with Virgo, the virgin. This exact alignment of sun, moon, and stars as described here in Revelation 12 does occur occasionally in the Fall. Psalm 19:1 says, “The heavens declare the glory of God.” I believe the order of star constellations also tell the whole gospel story….beginning with the Virgin and ending with the King Lion! That is another whole study in itself.
The dragon could also be described as a fiery serpent. The Old Testament often uses “fiery serpent” to describe Satan, the enemy of God. Here he has 7 heads, 10 horns, and 7 diadems on his heads. Isaiah 14: 13-14 is Satan’s declaration of his goals and who he thinks he is. He determines to exalt himself above the throne of God as King. Remember that 7 signifies spiritual and royal perfection, thus he thinks he is perfect headship and king, in mutiny against God. Remember that 10 signifies complete human government authority, for example the 10 Commandments of God. Satan intends to usurp God’s authority over mankind and rule them completely. He desires to imprison God’s favored creation, people. Verse 4 also describes Stan’s mutiny in taking 1/3 of the angels to separate from God with him. This dragon serpent tries to devour the child as soon as it is born. This is confirmed in Herod trying to kill Yeshua Jesus as a baby by killing all male babies in the area. Satan is also the one who continually persecutes people, God’s favored creation, especially His very own people. Thus, we see this dragon as described is Satan.